Rafting, the high-adrenaline sport of navigating a river in an inflatable raft, involves several levels of difficulty, depending on how choppy the river is. These ‘grades’ of difficulty are arrived at according to the presence of rapids, which evolve due to sudden plunges in the river’s height, and also because of rocks – small or large – that may be lurking in the waters. Rafting is a challenging but tremendously fun activity – just remember to keep the instructor’s safety tips in mind! White-water (rapids) does invoke fear but river-running done properly – under professional guidance, with the right training, using the appropriate equipment, taking all safety precautions, and by following a set of international safety and ecological norms – can be an extremely safe, enjoyable and exciting soft-adventure sport.
The sport’s popularity is probably due to the fact that almost anyone, including non- swimmers and those with no prior experience can, go rafting. All it takes is 15 minutes of instructions and you can have the time of your life – riding the waves, getting splashed and enjoying the peace and tranquillity of the river.

For one of the best experiences, streams originating from the Himalayas and Western Ghats present the wild side of theirs to challenge both your mind and body. The most frequented sites for this water sport are mostly situated in the lap and foothills of these mountain ranges.

This expedition through wild streams is not limited to professionals as amateurs can also have the fun, albeit with some safety precautions. It is advised to take the right precautions and professional guidance to enjoy this water activity to its fullest.

Rafting in India

Boasting world-class rafting potential, cultural and geographical diversity, easy access to most rivers, a host of international-standard river-running outfitters (with state-of- the-art equipment), an ethos steeped in hospitality, and – conveniently – no permit requirements for river running (except in the ‘inner line’, close to the border areas), India is emerging as ‘the river-running destination’ of the world. Rafting is certainly well on its way to becoming the most popular adventure sport in the country, and India a Shangri La for river-runners. With myriad rivers gushing through its heart, unspoilt environs, the riverine flora and fauna and the region’s rich and ancient culture, the Indian Himalayas make up an exciting destination for hard-core rafters. And while commercial rafting has come of age in the country, there are opportunities aplenty for first-timers, from juniors to septuagenarians, to learn and master the skills of ‘river-running’ – 9-year-old schoolchildren and 70-year-olds have rafted down rivers in India. Currently there are over 50 commercial outfitters in India organizing trips ranging from two-hour runs to multiple-day expeditions.

Know more about popular options for Rafting in India:

River rafting in India offers you an excursion through a series of adrenaline-rushing rapids down the fast streams. There are a number of sites, which offer you a chance to tame the waters at their furious best. The most popular sites for this adventure sport are Rishikesh, Kolad, Dandeli and the Tons in Garhwal. The thrill and dare involved vary from site to site, depending upon the water currents and topographies.

Ganga River, Rishikesh: One of the most idyllic places to enjoy this water sport is Rishikesh. Together with the crashing waves of the Ganga River and the surrounding undulating hills, Rishikesh provides adventure seekers a perfect landscape to enjoy this activity. It will be great fun to sail through the narrow gorges, rocky gradients and falls. The best time to enjoy this activity here is from September to June; however you can access the place throughout the year.

Rishikesh is the undisputed leader among the best river rafting destinations in India. The 16 km stretch of River Ganga from Shivpuri to Lakshman Jhula, makes the ideal place for river rafting, guaranteeing an adventurous ride, abounding in rapids and whirlpools, with curious names like Marine Drive, Roller Coaster and Cross Fire. Rafting is graded from 1 to 4 at this location.

Kundalika River, Kolad: Located in the Sahyadri Ranges, Kolad is a place that earns top spots in the list of rafting sites in India. Passing through the thick forests, the Kundalika River here is the only site in Maharashtra that provides for an exciting daring experience. It is a hotspot for this water sport, because of the rugged topography and scenic expedition route.

This splendid 15 km stretch of grade 3-5 rapids lies in the middle of Sahyadris.

Tons River, Garhwal: Enjoy the thrilling expedition on the raft in the aggressive waters of Tons River, which is the largest tributary of Yamuna. Originating from the Bandarpunch Range, the water body with its challenging waters will provide you one of the most thrilling experiences.

Adventure Tourism: The Tons River offers opportunities for adventure sports such as white-water rafting, kayaking, and trekking, attracting adventure enthusiasts from around the world.

Kali River, Dandeli: Dandeli is a popular adventure sports destination in Karnataka due to white water rafting opportunities in the Kali river. Experience the thrills of white water rafting on some unpredictable stretches of the Kali River in Dandeli – probably the best place after the options available in the Ganges. There are many private operators along with Karnataka Forest department (state-run) organizing rafting operations. Other adventure activities include boating, Kayaking and Bird watching.

Distance and Duration: Kali River in Dandeli offers a rafting stretch of up to 12 kms. The stretch of river is covered with dense forests, offers several grade 2 (simpler to negotiate) and grade 3 (needs a bit more effort) rapids making the rafting experience exhilarating, adventurous and memorable. The 12 km rafting excursion lasts 3 to 4 hours end to end, including transportation from the resort to the starting point.

Where to book: Rafting is operated by the Karnataka Forest Department. Booking counter operates in JLR’s Kali Adventure camp reception. Several private resorts and online portals also help you book your rafting excursion in Dandeli.

Other activities to try: Boating, Kayaking, Bird watching are the other adventure activities to try in Dandeli.

Indus River, Ladakh: Featuring next on the list of best places for river rafting in India is the Indus River of Ladakh. Rafting is done in the river and its tributaries from June to August every year, when the water levels are high. The rafting route takes you from Spitok to Nimmu, at the confluence of Indus and Zanskar, and finally to Alchi, which houses a temple complex. The rafting here is graded 2-3, which makes it quite challenging.

Zanskar River, Ladakh: Ladakh is a paradise for river rafters, with two major destinations for them- at Zanskar and Indus Rivers. The Zanskar River gorge reaches an altitude of 12000 feet and river rafting here is carried from Padum to Zimo, ending at the point where Zanskar merges with River Indus. It is a grade 4 rafting experience carried out only in summer months.

Teesta River, Darjeeling and Sikkim: River rafting in the Teesta River flowing in Darjeeling, Sikkim and Kalimpong Hill area, is of grade 4 intensity, which makes it more suitable for adept rafters. Rangit, the tributary of Teesta is particularly known for its notorious rapids. River rafting season here is from the winter months of October to April.

Barapole River, Coorg: Barapole River in Coorg, Karnataka is another popular river rafting destination in India. Located on the Deccan Plateau, the expedition begins at Ponya Coffee Estate and is graded between 2 and 4. June to September is the ideal time for river rafting here.

Alaknanda River, Uttarakhand: Alaknanda River, a tributary of River Ganga, in Uttarakhand is a river rafting destination for adventure lovers. Rafting is done between Chamoli and Rudraprayag and offers beautiful view of the mountains all along the route.

Grades of Rapids

It defines the relative gradient of the river bed and is generally classified into six grades according to the level of difficulty. Grade I and II rapids are easy and needs slight manoeuvring skills, whereas Grade III rapids are moderate; however the strong currents and irregular waves at these may require significant manoeuvring. The rapids at Grade IV and V are a bit dangerous, with a possibility of considerable drops and intense waves; thus demanding for skilled and precise manoeuvring. But the most dangerous are Grade VI rapids, with the extreme level of difficulty, and are limited to experts only.

You can enjoy river rafting in India on the famous rapids in the Kundalika, Ganga and Tons Rivers. Rishikesh has ample of rapids like Sweet Sixteen, Roller Coaster and The Wall, categorised as grades I, III and IV, respectively. Three Blind Mice is another popular rapid in the category of Grade III. Rafting is generally carried in the 14 km stretch of Kundalika, which has rapids of grade II and III. Emerging as a prominent site for this water sport, Tons offers a Grade IV rapid for those who seek an adrenaline rush.


Rafts are inflatable boats made out of either multi-layered synthetic rubber (Hypalon) or vinyl fabric (PVC). They measure anywhere between 3.5m (11ft) and 6m (20ft) in length, and 1.8m (6ft) and 2.5m (8ft) in width, and are exceedingly durable.Rafting destinations in IndiaNature has been generous to India as far as rivers are concerned. The four most popular commercial rafting rivers are the Ganges, Beas, Indus and Teesta. Uttaranchal in the north is home to many world-class white-water rivers, with easy access from Delhi.

Rafting Spots

Till date, river running has been concentrated mainly along the River Ganges in the Rishikesh-Devprayag area, but the Bhagirathi, Alaknanda and Mandakini rivers are also very much on the tourist map when it comes to rafting and kayaking.A number of other rivers in Uttaranchal – among them Tons, Yamuna, Ramganga, Kali Sarda and Saryu – have been explored and all offer excellent potential for river-running. And there are still a number of rivers, such as the Bhilangana, which, excitingly, remain to be explored.In Jammu and Kashmir, the most popular river for rafting is the Indus, in the Ladakh region, though an expedition on the Zanskar – highly recommended – is regarded as one of the best wilderness river runs in India. And with a number of riverine systems crisscrossing the entire state,Himachal Pradesh is a year-round river-running destination.
Most of the rivers in South India remain unexplored for their white-water promise, though a few like the Kaveri have been reconnoitred and certain sections found suitable for river-running. And unlike the north, rivers here are better preserved and not overexploited.


Uttaranchal: Ganges, Alaknanda, Bhagirathi, Yamuna, Tons, Kali Sarda (Mahakali),Pindar, Ramganga, Goriganga, Saryu, Mandakini
Jammu and Kashmir: Chenab, Lidder, Sindh (Kashmir); Indus, Zanskar, Tsarap, Doda,Suru, Dras, Nubra, Shyok (Ladakh)

Himachal Pradesh: Beas, Sutlej, Ravi, Chandra, Spiti


Sikkim / West Bengal: Teesta, Rangit, Lachen Chu
Arunachal Pradesh: Siang (Brahmaputra), Subansiri, LohitSouthKarnataka: Kaveri, Kali, Sita, Varahi

Central India

Maharashtra: Kundalika

Grading system for rapids

Rapids are graded on an international scale from I to VI progressively increasing in difficulty and danger. The size and type of waves, the hazards, remoteness, water temperature and nature of river (continuous rapids or a calm section between the rapids), the geographical terrain (a stretch of gorge or flat, open country) all go into deciding the grade of a rapid. The overall grade of a river depends on the hardest rapid on that river.

Grade I: Fast flowing water with small waves / ripples
Grade II: Easy
Grade III: Difficult
Grade IV: Very difficult
Grade V: Extreme, should be attempted by an experienced team only, danger to life and limb
Grade VI: Impossible to negotiate, suicidal.
Basic to medium swimming skills are required for Grades I to III, while a decent experience of white-water rafting is necessary for Grades IV and VI.


You are likely to have a few concerns before you hit the river for the first time and justifiably so. Here are certain points to watch out for that will help you have a safe and enjoyable rafting trip.What to watch out for before rafting India has a number of professional international-quality rafting outfits with skilled and safety-conscious guides who can introduce a beginner to the joys of river rafting. So how do you choose the correct one? Before planning your trip, ask the rafting tour operator a few questions:
1. How long has the company had a rafting operation?
2. Talk to people who have been rafting with the company recently.
3. Ask about their guides and their experience. If you can talk to the guides themselves, you can figure out whether they are well trained, informed, can communicate well and whether they are safety-conscious professionals.
4. Life jackets: According to statistics, eighty per cent of accidents in river rafting happen either because of not wearing life jackets, not wearing life jackets properly (zipper done up and buckles fastened securely) or not wearing proper life jackets.The life jackets must have adequate buoyancy (minimum of 6kg, preferably 9-10kg), must be of a proper type (U.S. Coast Guard Type-III or V) with the provision of ensuring a snug fit by means of straps etc., and must be worn correctly. Inflatable life jackets and ‘keyhole’ type jackets are not suitable for white-water rafting. Guides must ensure that life jackets are fitted ‘snugly’ before the trip starts and above all major drops.
5. Helmets are mandatory on all rapids and it is recommended that helmets be kept on throughout the trip. The helmet should be properly strapped – when you slide a finger between the strap and your chin it should feel snug.
6. If possible take a look at the rafts and the river equipment. Torn life jackets, helmets with broken straps and highly patched and leaky rafts do not inspire confidence.
7. Are the guides qualified in basic first aid and CPR (cardio-pulmonary resuscitation)?
8. Ask if the company carries a first-aid, emergency-repair kit on the river, and if all rafts have rescue throw bags. All rafting trips must carry a well-equipped repair kit containing repair material, glue / accelerator, sandpaper or roughing tool and waterproof repair tape / duck-tape. Oar rafts must carry at least one spare oar / spare oarlock. All rafts must have a safety line going all around the raft, a bow-line and preferably a stern-line as well. All rafts must have a throw bag, and non-self-bailing rafts must have a bailing bucket (two are recommended).
9. Some of the worst international accidents have happened when there has been only one raft on the river. As per rules of the Indian Association of Professional Rafting Outfitters, if you are on a section of the river which is grade III (difficult with big waves requiring maneuvering the raft through boulders/obstacles, slightly remote and/or away from the road), do ensure that the company you are going with uses a minimum of two craft, i.e. two rafts or a raft and a safety kayak. The two-craft rule can be relaxed for easy float trip sections (Grade-I to Grade-II) close to a road.
10. Do insist on a safety briefing before you start the rafting trip. The guide/trip leader must give a thorough safety briefing covering all pertinent details for that particular trip.
11. Ensure that non-swimmers are not allowed to body-surf.
12. Ensure that trips are timed to finish at least an hour before dark.

What to watch out for while rafting

1. Always wear your life jacket while on the river. The life jacket should fit snugly. Do always check with your guide before you remove your life jacket even on a calm section.
2. Helmets are more to protect you from the paddles of your enthusiastic rafting companions, and the oars/frame on a raft (in case of a flip on an oar rig), and very rarely as protection against the rocks on a river.
3. Even if you go only to look at a rapid, keep your life jacket and helmet on. It is all too easy to slip into the rapid. Even if you fall while scrambling on the rocks above the rapid, your safety gear will protect you.
4. Do not tie/wrap any rope around your wrists, arms, legs or neck! This can be dangerous in case of a flip, or if you fall out.
5. Do not place your feet in the safety line outside the raft while paddling. You are likely to get hurt in case you hit a boulder.
6. In case the raft is about to hit a boulder, do not try and stop the two-ton momentum of the raft with your lightweight paddle, foot or hands – you are likely to get hurt. Let the raft bounce off the rocks – it is a lot easier (and cheaper too!) to repair rafts!
7. Do stop water fights and other fun activities above rapids and let your guide concentrate on his line above the bigger rapids. Do ensure that your personal safety gear – lifejackets and helmets – fit snugly and that your feet are well braced-in under the tubes or in foot cups, above a big rapid.
8. Body-surfing is trying to negotiate a rapid without a raft. You are allowed to do this only on easy rapids and on sections with not too many rocks. Once you get comfortable doing it, body-surfing is a whole lot of fun. Once in the water, lie down on your back with your feet pointed downstream, your toes just sticking out of the water. A few tips to remember:a. Do not jump out till you have permission from your river guide.b. Not all rapids are safe for body-surfing and if you do jump out without permission remember you may well be walking ‘funny’ for a few days!c. Never dive into the river from the raft. Always go in feet first since there can be rocks below the surface that are not visible.d. Breathe as you go down a wave and stop breathing as you are going up and under the wave.e. You can gently push up with your hands as you go up the crest of the wave – this allows you to gasp for breath a fraction longer!f. Body-surfing rapids is not recommended for non-swimmers.
9. If you do fall off a raft and are forced to body-surf, do remember the following:
a. Do not panic – relax.
b. As soon as you fall off the raft, your life jacket will immediately bring you to the surface.
c. There is a ninety per cent possibility that you will surface right next to the raft. Grab hold of the raft. Remember the raft is your biggest life jacket on the river.
d. If you are close to the raft (a metre or two away) and a swimmer, swim to the raft
e. If you are away from the raft, adopt the white-water position (also referred to as the white-water missionary position!): lie on your back with your feet pointed downstream.
f. Do not try and stand up in a rapid since this can lead to a foot entrapment in a rock or other obstacles underwater.
g. Hold on to your paddle. You will be fairly useless without your paddle in the raft and your team is likely to throw you back into the river if you come back in without your paddle! You can use your paddle to extend your reach and get help. Always give the grip end of the paddle to someone trying to help you, or someone you are trying to help.
h. Listen to your guide, even though it may be contrary to your instinct. If your guide points in any direction, swim in that direction. Your guides always point towards safety.
i. Watch out for the rescue throw bag your guide is likely to throw at you. Grab hold of the rope sticking out of the bag and not the bag itself. Do not wrap the rope around your wrist or neck. Put it over your shoulder with your face pointing away from the direction you are being pulled since this creates an air pocket (this will be explained to you before you go rafting during the safety briefing), and get pulled back into the raft.
j. If any of your fellow rafters have fallen off the raft, pull them back into the raft from the top of their life jackets (shoulder section) only.
k. Smile. The most important thing to do on a river – enjoy yourself!

What to watch out for after rafting

There have been a number of fatal accidents in India involving swimmers camping after a rafting trip. A few dos and don’ts for swimming in the river:
1. Never go out swimming alone in the river – always take a companion along.
2. Inform your guide and swim in sight of your camp.
3. Even if you are a swimming champion and a budding Mark Spitz, DO NOT swim in the river without a trained lifeguard watching over you.
4. If you’re swimming in the river, always keep a life jacket on. There can be cross currents, and since most rafting rivers in India are cold glacial melt rivers, you can easily get tired or even get cramp.
5. Do not swim in the river immediately after a meal
6. Never go out for a swim after drinking alcohol.
7. Do not go for a swim after dark.
8. Be especially careful in large/mixed groups since high testosterone levels in some males can instantly make them strong swimmers – even if they are weak swimmers (and sometimes even non-swimmers!).

Medical concerns

If you have a previous medical condition, mention them to the instructor, and do remember to carry the necessary prescribed medication.

Ecological concerns

Rivers are worshiped as goddesses in India and are considered worthy of respect. All rafters have a responsibility to preserve the river environment, an environment that is beautiful but also fragile.As a rule, do whatever it takes to leave a positive impact on the river environment. Do leave the beaches cleaner than you find them. A beach sweep, where all rafters line up and sweep the beach for any litter before you get on the river, is always a positive move.If you see any floating plastic bottles etc. on the river, do take the trouble to fish them out and dispose of them sensibly.

A to Z of Rafting

White water: Turbulent or frothy water, as in rapids or surf.
Rapids: An extremely fast-moving part of a river, caused by a steep descent or a rock in the riverbed. Often used in the plural.
Put in: The point where the rafts are put into the river for starting the rafting trip.
Take out: The point where rafts are taken out after rafting.
Eddies: Small whirlpools.
Body-surfing: Riding a river rapid with just a life jacket on.
Wet suits: A protective garment used for water-sports. These suits help preserve body heat by trapping a layer of water against the skin; this water is consequently warmed by body heat and acts as an insulator.
Oar rafting: In an oar raft, a metal frame is strapped on to the raft and the guide sits on a seat in the middle. An oar/paddle combination works well on some rivers where the guide still has control and maneuverability and is assisted by paddle power.
Paddle rafting: Paddle rafting is more active and participative than oar rafting. In a paddle raft, all rafters paddle to the command of the guide while in an oar raft, the guide does all the work – the crew helps out by bailing water (in a non-self-bailing raft) and by high siding (a technique for weighing down the high side of a raft in big waves)
Punter: An inexperienced rafter

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